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Glossary [D-F]
Terminology of Sound
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Digital Model
A numerical dataset which, when coupled with a corresponding series of mathematical algorithms, represents a phenomenon of a different form, in most cases physical.
Direct Path
The shortest travel path from a sound source to a listener's ears.  The direct path allows a listener to tell where each sound is coming from, 360 degrees both in azimuth and elevation.  This is the primary concept of 3D sound positioning.
Doppler effect
The change in frequency of a sound wave due to the relative motion between a sound source and listener.  For example, when a car moves past you while sounding its horn, you will hear a drop in pitch as the car passes.
Digital Signal Processing: the modification of audio signals that have been converted from analog to digital for the purpose of improving the quality of the audio signal in some way.  Also often used to reference the microprocessor hardware used to accomplish this objective.
Ear Buds
Small earphones which fit with in the ear canal.
Anything which emits, in this context, sound.
The process of modifying an audio signal for the purpose of making it appear to a human ear to originate from outside of a listener's head.
Extended Stereo
A term that summarizes a number of techniques that involve processing of traditional stereo sounds with the goal of making them appear to originate from a range which extends beyond the physical speaker locations.  The effect is often limited to a planar arc in front of the listener with everything at the same elevation.  Extended stereo effects tend to be incompatible with headphone listening and to only have the intended effect if the listener is located at a particular spot in relation to the speakers (see "sweet spot").
The reduction in size or intensity of a sound wave due to increasing distance of a sound source from a ear.
Fisher, Scott
The founder of Telepresence Research and original director of the Virtual Interactive Environment Workstation (VIEW) project at NASA's Ames Research Center.  Often confused with Scott Foster, his friend and the founder of Crystal River Engineering and inventor of the Convolvotron, both hail from MIT in the 1970's and the Atari Research Labs in the early 1980's.  The VIEW project, started in 1984, determined the need for virtual interactive aural imaging and initiated the development of the Convolvotron.
Foster, Scott
The founder of Crystal River Engineering and inventor of the Convolvotron.  Often confused with Scott Fisher, his friend and founder of Telepresence Research, both hail from MIT in the 1970's and the Atari Research Labs in the early 1980's.  Scott Foster is considered by many to be the founder of interactive localized audio, since his Convolvotron was the first device to bring the technology to auralization.
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